Mary Beth McCullough wins College of Education award at 2021 Student Research Symposium

Mary Beth McCullough was the named the Undergraduate Oral Winner for the College of Education during the 2021 Student Research Symposium. Mary Beth won the honor for her oral presentation, “Stride Hip Internal Rotation is Associated with Pain in Collegiate Softball Pitchers.” The full abstract is below.

Stride Hip Internal Rotation is Associated with Pain in Collegiate Softball Pitchers

Regarding the windmill pitch used in softball, there is a paucity of data about the association between lower extremity (LE) kinematics and pain. The purpose of this study was to gain insight on differences in LE kinematics and clinical measures (CM) between collegiate softball pitchers who experience pain and those who do not. It was hypothesized that LE kinematics and CM would differ between pitchers with and without pain. 36 collegiate softball pitchers (22.3±1.7 yrs, 173.1±7.5 cm, 80.3±10.0 kg) performed three fastball pitches at regulation distance to a catcher. All participants answered a survey question on if they experience pain; those who said yes and no were separated into the pain or no-pain group, correspondingly. Kinematic data were obtained using an electromagnetic motion tracking system. Data were averaged across the 3 trials, and the max value across the entire pitching motion was analyzed. Bilateral hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength and range of motion (ROM) were collected using a handheld dynameter and digital inclinometer, respectively. Data were non-normally distributed therefore a Mann-Whitney U test was performed to determine any differences between pain and no-pain groups. Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference in stride hip IR max velocity during the entire pitching motion between those with and without pain (U=87.0, p=0.018). Specifically, those with pain had a greater amount of stride hip IR velocity than pitchers who did not have pain. Test also revealed a significant difference in stride hip IR ROM (U=97.0, p=0.042). Pain group had significantly more IR ROM. There were no other significant differences between groups for LE kinematics and CM. Higher IR velocity and IR ROM in the stride hip was associated with pain. It is unknown whether this difference is the result or cause of pain in pitchers. The results of the current study provide further evidence of the association between LE kinematics and pain.

Molly Cassidy wins University-Wide award at 2021 Student Research Symposium

Molly Cassidy won third place for University-Wide undergraduate poster presentation in the category for human sciences, social sciences, creative arts, nursing and humanities. Molly presented “Electromyographic analysis of shoulder rotation strength testing positions.” The full abstract is below.

Electromyographic analysis of shoulder rotation strength testing positions

BACKGROUND: Shoulder strength is essential for upper extremity function during overhand sports tasks. Clinicians perform shoulder rotational strength tests in various positions to examine shoulder function; however, shoulder function may vary between positions. The purpose of this study was to compare peak torque and muscle activation between two shoulder rotational strength testing positions.


METHODS: Eighteen participants (12 females, 6 males, age: 21.2±2.9 y, height: 170.7±8.3 cm, weight: 73.8±9.3 kg) performed isometric shoulder internal and external rotation strength tests using an isokinetic dynamometer in the following positions: (1) supine with arm abducted at 90° in the frontal plane, and (2) seated with arm abducted at 90° in the frontal plane and internally rotated 45°. The elbow was flexed 90° in both positions. Electromyographic data were collected on the posterior (PD) and anterior deltoid (AD). Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) testing established baseline muscle activity to which subsequent trials were normalized. A 2 (position) x 2 (direction) repeated measures analysis of variance (RM·ANOVA) compared torque values between testing positions for external and internal rotation tests. A second 2 (muscle) x 2 (position) RM·ANOVA compared muscle activation (%MVC) between testing positions for AD and PD muscles.


RESULTS: The first RM∙ANOVA did not reveal a significant position by direction interaction. The second RM∙ANOVA did reveal a significant muscle by position interaction [F(1, 17) = 5.414, p = 0.033]. Post hoc analysis showed a difference between supine (mean: 25.2, SD: ± 3.3 %MVIC) and seated (mean: 32.2, SD: ± 3.8 %MVIC) positions for AD activation, where greater activation was measured in the seated position (p = 0.025).


CONCLUSIONS: Although peak torque differences were not observed between positions, clinicians should note that the AD may have a greater contribution to overall shoulder strength in the seated position versus supine.